Electoral Pact Poll May 2022

This page first posted 23 May 2022

Pollster Find Out Now and election experts Electoral Calculus have run an MRP poll on voting intention for Westminster in the presence of an electoral pact on behalf of the Constitution Society. This was a large-scale poll, involving over 16,000 respondents, carried out from 9 to 12 May 2022.

The poll asked England and Wales residents whether and how they intend to vote if there were an imminent general election and there was an electoral pact between Labour, the Liberal Democrats and the Green party.

The question assumed that there was an electoral pact between Labour, the Liberal Democrats and the Green party throughout England and Wales. It was also assumed that the pact did not apply in Scotland, and that Plaid Cymru were not included.

It was also assumed that the 573 seats in England and Wales were allocated between the pact parties, so that only one of the pact parties would stand a candidate in each seat. The method of seat selection was as follows:

See Appendix 2 for the full list of seat selections.

This poll is very similar to the questions asked in a previous poll conducted in June 2021, although public opinion has changed markedly since then.

The headline table of predicted seats is

Pact Prediction: Labour majority of 136

Party2019 Votes2019 SeatsPredicted
CON 44.7%365 33%101−264
LAB 33.0%203 42%393+190
LIB 11.8%11 8%71+60
Green 2.8%1 2%17+16
Reform 2.1%0 4%00
SNP 4.0%48 4%480
Plaid 0.5%4 1%2−2

Prediction based on opinion poll from 9-12 May 2022 to 24 Apr 2022, sampling 16,279 people.

These results show that an electoral pact between Labour, Liberal Democrats and the Greens could make a fundamental difference to the outcome of a general election.

Current opinion polls show that Labour might be largest party after a fresh general election, but there is no guarantee that it would have enough seats for an outright overall majority. The latest Electoral Calculus monthly poll of polls suggests that Labour would be short about 10 seats of a majority. The recent local election results also suggest that Labour's support is partial and patchy.

But if there were an electoral pact between Labour, the Liberal Democrats and the Greens in England and Wales, then the Conservatives could lose two-thirds of their seats and would be ejected from government. The pact parties would have a landslide victory, with a parliamentary majority of over 300 seats.

Within the pact, all three parties benefit from it. Labour nearly doubles its seat total. The Liberal Democrats go up to 71 seats, which would be the best Liberal performance since 1923. And the Greens could win 17 seats compared to their existing single seat. This could be perceived as win-win-win for these three parties.

The poll did not include Scotland and the calculations assumed no change to the 2019 election result there. In Wales, the poll suggests that Plaid might lose a couple of seats to the pact.


Respondents were asked two questions. The first was a general question of likelihood to vote.

Q1. We know that many people in your area didn't vote in the last general election. How likely do you think you are to vote in the next general election on a scale from 0 to 10? (10 - certain to vote, 0 - certain not to vote)

The second question depends on the constituency that the respondent lives in. In general terms, the question has the format

Q2. Suppose at the next general election that all the usual political parties are standing in your seat except that the [OTHER PARTY1] and [OTHER PARTY2] have agreed not to stand and are asking their supporters to vote [SELECTED PARTY]. Which party, if any, would you vote for, in this general election?

This had three particular instances, depending on which pact party was selected for the relevant seat. These question variants were:

Q2A. [For voters in seats selected for Labour] Suppose at the next general election that all the usual political parties are standing in your seat except that the Liberal Democrats and the Greens have agreed not to stand and are asking their supporters to vote Labour. Which party, if any, would you vote for, in this general election?

Q2B. [For voters in seats selected for the Liberal Democrats] Suppose at the next general election that all the usual political parties are standing in your seat except that Labour and the Greens have agreed not to stand and are asking their supporters to vote Liberal Democrat. Which party, if any, would you vote for, in this general election

Q2C. [For voters in seats selected for the Green party] Suppose at the next general election that all the usual political parties are standing in your seat except that Labour and the Liberal Democrats have agreed not to stand and are asking their supporters to vote Green. Which party, if any, would you vote for, in this general election?

Respondents were not given the option of voting for a pact party which was not selected for their own seat. Respondents were given the additional option of "Would not vote" if the existence of the pact made them to decide on that.


Professor Andrew Blick, Professor of Politics and Contemporary History, King's College London and Senior Adviser to the Constitution Society, said "There are various political and practical obstacles to bringing into being the pact we have modelled for this poll. However, the results suggest that – if the three parties are willing and able to overcome these blockages – it could enable them to remove the Conservatives from power. What happened next would depend on how far the three parties had coordinated in advance. But it could involve policy commitments that might include a permanent change in the electoral system, and possibly a lasting change in the political balance of power in the UK."

Martin Baxter, founder of Electoral Calculus, said "This poll builds on last year's work to show that an electoral pact would make a huge impact to British politics. The pact parties would benefit greatly at the expense of the Conservatives if they decided to work together. A majority of the public would back such a deal, and the question is whether the parties themselves could agree to do it."

Chris Holbrook, founder of Find Out Now, said "Politicians and voters are sceptical about electoral pacts, at least in the UK. Overseas they are much more common place. It will be interesting to see if Labour and the Liberal Democrats think they have enough in common to do a pact. How keen are they to get rid of Boris Johnson in particular and the Conservatives overall?"

Technical Details

Find Out Now polled 16,279 adults in England and Wales online between 9-12 May 2022. The sample was weighted to be representative by gender, age, social grade, other demographics and past voting patterns. Regression techniques were used to infer projected seat results.

Both Find Out Now and Electoral Calculus are members of the British Polling Council and abide by its rules.

The data tables are available.

The Constitution Society

The Constitution Society is an independent, non-party educational foundation which works to promote informed debate about constitutional reform. Founded in 2009, its academic staff carry out in-depth research on constitutional topics.

Electoral Calculus

Electoral Calculus is a political consultancy specialising in quantitative analysis and modelling for electoral and other market research projects. Its pre-poll prediction for the 2019 general election was the most accurate published forecast. It was founded by Martin Baxter, its CEO.

Find Out Now

Find Out Now gathers poll responses from Pick My Postcode, a daily panel from 2.6 million members. Highly profiled respondents can be targeted instantly, and at scale to deliver reliable results fast. More than 73 million responses have been received to Find Out Now's polls since it launched in November 2018. Find Out Now are Market Research Society Company Partners and a member of the British Polling Council.

Regression Polling

Modern polling analysis often uses statistical regression techniques to get more accurate and geographically detailed results. Also called MRP (multi-level regression and post stratification) they have been used successfully by Electoral Calculus and other pollsters to predict general elections, local elections and the 2019 European elections.

These techniques work by spotting patterns between people's demographic characteristics and their likelihood to vote for various parties.

Appendix 1 – Seats predicted to change hands

Altrincham and Sale WestCONLAB
Arundel and South DownsCONLIB
Barrow and FurnessCONLAB
Bedfordshire MidCONLAB
Bedfordshire North EastCONLAB
Bedfordshire South WestCONLAB
Bexleyheath and CrayfordCONLAB
Birmingham NorthfieldCONLAB
Bishop AucklandCONLAB
Blackpool North and CleveleysCONLAB
Blackpool SouthCONLAB
Blyth ValleyCONLAB
Bolton North EastCONLAB
Bolton WestCONLAB
Bournemouth EastCONGreen
Bournemouth WestCONGreen
Bromley and ChislehurstCONLAB
Bury NorthCONLAB
Bury SouthCONLAB
Bury St EdmundsCONGreen
Calder ValleyCONLAB
Camborne and RedruthCONLAB
Cambridgeshire North WestCONLAB
Cambridgeshire SouthCONLIB
Cambridgeshire South EastCONLIB
Carshalton and WallingtonCONLIB
Chelsea and FulhamCONLIB
Chesham and AmershamCONLIB
Chingford and Woodford GreenCONLAB
Chipping BarnetCONLAB
Cities of London and WestminsterCONLIB
Colne ValleyCONLAB
Cornwall NorthCONLIB
Cornwall South EastCONLAB
Cotswolds, TheCONLIB
Crewe and NantwichCONLAB
Croydon SouthCONLAB
Derby NorthCONLAB
Derbyshire DalesCONLAB
Derbyshire MidCONLAB
Derbyshire North EastCONLAB
Devon CentralCONLAB
Devon NorthCONLIB
Devon West and TorridgeCONLIB
Don ValleyCONLAB
Dorset SouthCONLAB
Dorset WestCONGreen
Dudley NorthCONLAB
Durham North WestCONLAB
Elmet and RothwellCONLAB
Epsom and EwellCONLIB
Esher and WaltonCONLIB
Filton and Bradley StokeCONLAB
Finchley and Golders GreenCONLIB
Folkestone and HytheCONLAB
Forest of DeanCONGreen
Gillingham and RainhamCONLAB
Great GrimsbyCONLAB
Halesowen and Rowley RegisCONLAB
Hampshire EastCONGreen
Hampshire North EastCONLIB
Harrogate and KnaresboroughCONLIB
Harrow EastCONLAB
Harwich and North EssexCONLAB
Hastings and RyeCONLAB
Hazel GroveCONLIB
Hemel HempsteadCONLAB
Hereford and South HerefordshireCONLAB
Hertford and StortfordCONLAB
Hertfordshire North EastCONLAB
Hertfordshire South WestCONLAB
Heywood and MiddletonCONLAB
Hitchin and HarpendenCONLIB
Isle of WightCONGreen
Kenilworth and SouthamCONLIB
Maidstone and The WealdCONLAB
Middlesbrough South and Cleveland EastCONLAB
Milton Keynes NorthCONLAB
Milton Keynes SouthCONLAB
Mole ValleyCONLIB
Morecambe and LunesdaleCONLAB
Morley and OutwoodCONLAB
Newton AbbotCONLIB
Norfolk MidCONLAB
Norfolk SouthCONLAB
Northampton NorthCONLAB
Northampton SouthCONLAB
Norwich NorthCONLAB
Penistone and StocksbridgeCONLAB
Plymouth Moor ViewCONLAB
Portsmouth NorthCONLAB
Reading WestCONLAB
Ribble SouthCONLAB
Rochester and StroodCONLAB
Rochford and Southend EastCONLAB
Romsey and Southampton NorthCONLIB
Rossendale and DarwenCONLAB
Rother ValleyCONLAB
Ruislip, Northwood and PinnerCONLAB
Runnymede and WeybridgeCONLAB
Scarborough and WhitbyCONLAB
Shrewsbury and AtchamCONLAB
Somerset NorthCONGreen
Somerset North EastCONLAB
Somerton and FromeCONGreen
Southampton ItchenCONLAB
Southend WestCONLAB
St Austell and NewquayCONLAB
Stockton SouthCONLAB
Stoke-on-Trent CentralCONLAB
Stoke-on-Trent NorthCONLAB
Stoke-on-Trent SouthCONLAB
Suffolk CoastalCONLAB
Surrey EastCONLIB
Surrey HeathCONLIB
Surrey South WestCONLIB
Sussex MidCONLIB
Sutton and CheamCONLIB
Sutton ColdfieldCONLAB
Swindon NorthCONLAB
Swindon SouthCONLAB
Taunton DeaneCONLIB
Thanet NorthCONLAB
Thanet SouthCONLAB
Thornbury and YateCONLIB
Tiverton and HonitonCONLAB
Truro and FalmouthCONGreen
Tunbridge WellsCONLIB
Uxbridge and South RuislipCONLAB
Walsall NorthCONLAB
Warrington SouthCONLAB
Welwyn HatfieldCONLAB
West Bromwich EastCONLAB
West Bromwich WestCONLAB
Wiltshire NorthCONLIB
Wiltshire South WestCONLAB
Wolverhampton North EastCONLAB
Wolverhampton South WestCONLAB
Worthing East and ShorehamCONLAB
Worthing WestCONLAB
Wrekin, TheCONLAB
York OuterCONLAB
Brecon and RadnorshireCONLIB
Carmarthen West and Pembrokeshire SouthCONLAB
Clwyd SouthCONLAB
Clwyd WestCONLAB
Preseli PembrokeshireCONLAB
Vale of ClwydCONLAB
Vale of GlamorganCONGreen

Appendix 2 – Selected Seats

Seats selected for Labour (468 seats)

Aberavon, Aberconwy, Aldershot, Aldridge-Brownhills, Altrincham and Sale West, Alyn and Deeside, Amber Valley, Arfon, Ashfield, Ashford, Ashton under Lyne, Aylesbury, Banbury, Barking, Barnsley Central, Barnsley East, Barrow and Furness, Basildon and Billericay, Basildon South and East Thurrock, Basingstoke, Bassetlaw, Batley and Spen, Battersea, Beaconsfield, Beckenham, Bedford, Bedfordshire Mid, Bedfordshire North East, Bedfordshire South West, Bermondsey and Old Southwark, Berwick-upon-Tweed, Bethnal Green and Bow, Beverley and Holderness, Bexhill and Battle, Bexleyheath and Crayford, Birkenhead, Birmingham Edgbaston, Birmingham Erdington, Birmingham Hall Green, Birmingham Hodge Hill, Birmingham Ladywood, Birmingham Northfield, Birmingham Perry Barr, Birmingham Selly Oak, Birmingham Yardley, Bishop Auckland, Blackburn, Blackley and Broughton, Blackpool North and Cleveleys, Blackpool South, Blaenau Gwent, Blaydon, Blyth Valley, Bognor Regis and Littlehampton, Bolsover, Bolton North East, Bolton South East, Bolton West, Bootle, Boston and Skegness, Bosworth, Bracknell, Bradford East, Bradford South, Bradford West, Braintree, Brent Central, Brent North, Brentford and Isleworth, Brentwood and Ongar, Bridgend, Bridgwater and West Somerset, Brigg and Goole, Brighton Kemptown, Bristol East, Bristol North West, Bristol South, Bristol West, Broadland, Bromley and Chislehurst, Bromsgrove, Broxbourne, Broxtowe, Burnley, Burton, Bury North, Bury South, Caerphilly, Calder Valley, Camberwell and Peckham, Camborne and Redruth, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire North East, Cambridgeshire North West, Canterbury, Cardiff Central, Cardiff North, Cardiff South and Penarth, Cardiff West, Carlisle, Carmarthen East and Dinefwr, Carmarthen West and Pembrokeshire South, Castle Point, Charnwood, Chatham and Aylesford, Chester, City of, Chesterfield, Chingford and Woodford Green, Chipping Barnet, Chorley, Clacton, Cleethorpes, Clwyd South, Clwyd West, Colchester, Colne Valley, Congleton, Copeland, Corby, Cornwall South East, Coventry North East, Coventry North West, Coventry South, Crawley, Crewe and Nantwich, Croydon Central, Croydon North, Croydon South, Cynon Valley, Dagenham and Rainham, Darlington, Dartford, Daventry, Delyn, Denton and Reddish, Derby North, Derby South, Derbyshire Dales, Derbyshire Mid, Derbyshire North East, Derbyshire South, Devon Central, Devon East, Devon South West, Dewsbury, Don Valley, Doncaster Central, Doncaster North, Dorset South, Dover, Dudley North, Dudley South, Dulwich and West Norwood, Durham North, Durham North West, Durham, City of, Dwyfor Meirionnydd, Ealing Central and Acton, Ealing North, Ealing Southall, Easington, East Ham, Eddisbury, Edmonton, Ellesmere Port and Neston, Elmet and Rothwell, Eltham, Enfield North, Enfield Southgate, Epping Forest, Erewash, Erith and Thamesmead, Exeter, Fareham, Faversham and Kent Mid, Feltham and Heston, Filton and Bradley Stoke, Folkestone and Hythe, Fylde, Gainsborough, Garston and Halewood, Gateshead, Gedling, Gillingham and Rainham, Gloucester, Gosport, Gower, Grantham and Stamford, Gravesham, Great Grimsby, Great Yarmouth, Greenwich and Woolwich, Hackney North and Stoke Newington, Hackney South and Shoreditch, Halesowen and Rowley Regis, Halifax, Haltemprice and Howden, Halton, Hammersmith, Hampstead and Kilburn, Harborough, Harlow, Harrow East, Harrow West, Hartlepool, Harwich and North Essex, Hastings and Rye, Havant, Hayes and Harlington, Hemel Hempstead, Hemsworth, Hendon, Hereford and South Herefordshire, Hertford and Stortford, Hertfordshire North East, Hertfordshire South West, Hertsmere, Hexham, Heywood and Middleton, High Peak, Holborn and St Pancras, Hornchurch and Upminster, Hornsey and Wood Green, Houghton and Sunderland South, Hove, Huddersfield, Hull East, Hull North, Hull West and Hessle, Huntingdon, Hyndburn, Ilford North, Ilford South, Ipswich, Islington North, Islington South and Finsbury, Islwyn, Jarrow, Keighley, Kensington, Kettering, Kingswood, Knowsley, Lancashire West, Lancaster and Fleetwood, Leeds Central, Leeds East, Leeds North East, Leeds North West, Leeds West, Leicester East, Leicester South, Leicester West, Leicestershire North West, Leicestershire South, Leigh, Lewisham Deptford, Lewisham East, Lewisham West and Penge, Leyton and Wanstead, Lichfield, Lincoln, Liverpool Riverside, Liverpool Walton, Liverpool Wavertree, Liverpool West Derby, Llanelli, Loughborough, Louth and Horncastle, Luton North, Luton South, Macclesfield, Maidstone and The Weald, Makerfield, Maldon, Manchester Central, Manchester Gorton, Manchester Withington, Mansfield, Meriden, Merthyr Tydfil and Rhymney, Middlesbrough, Middlesbrough South and Cleveland East, Milton Keynes North, Milton Keynes South, Mitcham and Morden, Monmouth, Morecambe and Lunesdale, Morley and Outwood, Neath, New Forest East, Newark, Newcastle upon Tyne Central, Newcastle upon Tyne East, Newcastle upon Tyne North, Newcastle-under-Lyme, Newport East, Newport West, Norfolk Mid, Norfolk North West, Norfolk South, Norfolk South West, Normanton, Pontefract and Castleford, Northampton North, Northampton South, Northamptonshire South, Norwich North, Norwich South, Nottingham East, Nottingham North, Nottingham South, Nuneaton, Ogmore, Old Bexley and Sidcup, Oldham East and Saddleworth, Oldham West and Royton, Orpington, Oxford East, Pendle, Penistone and Stocksbridge, Penrith and The Border, Peterborough, Plymouth Moor View, Plymouth Sutton and Devonport, Pontypridd, Poole, Poplar and Limehouse, Portsmouth North, Portsmouth South, Preseli Pembrokeshire, Preston, Pudsey, Putney, Rayleigh and Wickford, Reading East, Reading West, Redcar, Redditch, Rhondda, Ribble South, Ribble Valley, Richmond, Rochdale, Rochester and Strood, Rochford and Southend East, Romford, Rossendale and Darwen, Rother Valley, Rotherham, Rugby, Ruislip, Northwood and Pinner, Runnymede and Weybridge, Rushcliffe, Salford and Eccles, Scarborough and Whitby, Scunthorpe, Sedgefield, Sefton Central, Selby and Ainsty, Sheffield Brightside and Hillsborough, Sheffield Central, Sheffield Hallam, Sheffield Heeley, Sheffield South East, Sherwood, Shipley, Shrewsbury and Atcham, Sittingbourne and Sheppey, Skipton and Ripon, Sleaford and North Hykeham, Slough, Solihull, Somerset North East, South Holland and The Deepings, South Shields, Southampton Itchen, Southampton Test, Southend West, Southport, Spelthorne, St Austell and Newquay, St Helens North, St Helens South and Whiston, Staffordshire Moorlands, Stalybridge and Hyde, Stevenage, Stockport, Stockton North, Stockton South, Stoke-on-Trent Central, Stoke-on-Trent North, Stoke-on-Trent South, Stone, Stourbridge, Streatham, Stretford and Urmston, Suffolk Central and Ipswich North, Suffolk Coastal, Suffolk South, Suffolk West, Sunderland Central, Sutton Coldfield, Swansea East, Swansea West, Swindon North, Swindon South, Tamworth, Tatton, Telford, Thanet North, Thanet South, Thirsk and Malton, Thurrock, Tiverton and Honiton, Tooting, Torfaen, Tottenham, Tynemouth, Tyneside North, Uxbridge and South Ruislip, Vale of Clwyd, Vauxhall, Wakefield, Wallasey, Walsall North, Walsall South, Walthamstow, Wansbeck, Warley, Warrington North, Warrington South, Warwick and Leamington, Warwickshire North, Washington and Sunderland West, Watford, Waveney, Weaver Vale, Wellingborough, Welwyn Hatfield, Wentworth and Dearne, West Bromwich East, West Bromwich West, West Ham, Westminster North, Weston-Super-Mare, Wigan, Wiltshire South West, Wirral South, Wirral West, Wolverhampton North East, Wolverhampton South East, Wolverhampton South West, Worcester, Worcestershire Mid, Workington, Worsley and Eccles South, Worthing East and Shoreham, Worthing West, Wrekin, The, Wrexham, Wycombe, Wyre and Preston North, Wyre Forest, Wythenshawe and Sale East, Ynys Mon, York Central, York Outer, Yorkshire East

Seats selected for Liberal Democrats (81 seats)

Arundel and South Downs, Bath, Brecon and Radnorshire, Buckingham, Cambridgeshire South, Cambridgeshire South East, Carshalton and Wallington, Ceredigion, Cheadle, Chelmsford, Chelsea and Fulham, Cheltenham, Chesham and Amersham, Chichester, Chippenham, Christchurch, Cities of London and Westminster, Cornwall North, Cotswolds, The, Devizes, Devon North, Devon West and Torridge, Dorset Mid and Poole North, Dorset North, Eastbourne, Eastleigh, Epsom and Ewell, Esher and Walton, Finchley and Golders Green, Guildford, Hampshire North East, Hampshire North West, Harrogate and Knaresborough, Hazel Grove, Henley, Hitchin and Harpenden, Horsham, Kenilworth and Southam, Kingston and Surbiton, Ludlow, Maidenhead, Meon Valley, Mole Valley, Montgomeryshire, Newbury, Newton Abbot, Norfolk North, Oxford West and Abingdon, Richmond Park, Romsey and Southampton North, Saffron Walden, Sevenoaks, Shropshire North, St Albans, St Ives, Stratford-on-Avon, Surrey East, Surrey Heath, Surrey South West, Sussex Mid, Sutton and Cheam, Taunton Deane, Tewkesbury, Thornbury and Yate, Tonbridge and Malling, Torbay, Totnes, Tunbridge Wells, Twickenham, Wantage, Wealden, Wells, Westmorland and Lonsdale, Wiltshire North, Wimbledon, Winchester, Windsor, Witney, Woking, Wokingham, Yeovil

Seats selected for the Green Party (24 seats)

Bournemouth East, Bournemouth West, Brighton Pavilion, Bury St Edmunds, Cannock Chase, Dorset West, Forest of Dean, Hampshire East, Herefordshire North, Isle of Wight, Lewes, New Forest West, Reigate, Rutland and Melton, Salisbury, Somerset North, Somerton and Frome, Stafford, Staffordshire South, Stroud, Truro and Falmouth, Vale of Glamorgan, Witham, Worcestershire West